* Please refer to our virtual course packet for the Harvard Business School Case studies*
Check out my research papers for download (available via SSRN)
Here are abstracts from my research in the area of event marketing/sponsorship-linked marketing (available until 2010; 2010-current papers are available above)
Consumer Behavior Knowledge for Effective Sports and Event Marketing (Book)
Kahle, L.R. & Close, A.G. (Eds.). (2010). Consumer Behavior Knowledge for Effective Sports and Event Marketing, New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN: 978-0-415-87358 Publish Date: September 2010, 310 pages.
The growing complexity and importance of sports and event marketing has pushed scholars and practitioners to apply sophisticated marketing thinking and applications to these topics. This book deals with the professional development in the sense that sports marketing can be viewed as an application of consumer behavior research. Readers will learn about new opportunities in using consumer behavior knowledge effectively in the areas of a)influencing behaviors in society and sports b) building relationships with consumers through sports and events and c) providing services to consumers through sport and event sponsorships. This book, by a superb group of authors, includes comprehensive reviews, innovative conceptual pieces, empirical research and rigorous attention to data.
Engaging the Consumer through Event Marketing: Linking Attendees with the Sponsor, Community, and Brand
Close, A.G., Finney, R.Z., Lacey, R., & Sneath, J.Z. (2006). Engaging the Consumer through Event Marketing: Linking Attendees with the Sponsor, Community, and Brand. Journal of Advertising Research. 46 (4), 420-433.
With an on-site study at a sponsored event, we construct and test competing models to examine the relationship between event attendees, sponsorship, community involvement, and the title sponsor’s brand with respect to purchase intentions. We show that an attendee’s enthusiasm and activeness in the area of the sponsored event and knowledge of the sponsor’s products positively influence the attendee’s desire that a sponsor be involved with the community. Then, we show that attendees who are more community-minded have a more positive opinion of the sponsor as a result of their event experience; a better opinion of the sponsor contributes to increased intentions to purchase the sponsor’s products. Results from this framework indicate that event marketing, in conjunction with consumers who are enthusiastic, active, and knowledgeable about the sponsor and event, serves as a valuable lever to engage the consumer.
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This Event is Me!: How Consumer-Event Congruity Leverages Sponsorship
Close, A.G., Krishen, A.S., & LaTour, M.S. (2009). This Event is Me! How Consumer-Event Congruity Leverages Sponsorship. Journal of Advertising Research. 49 (3), 271-284.
Based on a real-world field study of twenty-one sponsored promotional events (sponsored fashion shows) (n=535), we provide a self-congruity theory-based model explaining the role of mall shopper’s self-congruity on the effectiveness of experiential mall promotions. We find that self-congruity with the event is a key influencer of promotion effectiveness. Specifically we show that: a) more expertise with the sponsor impacts self-congruity with the sponsor; b) in turn, self-congruity with the promotional event enhances persuasiveness of the event; and c) this event persuasion enhances the consumer’s likelihood to shop at the sponsor’s store. Further, when entertained shoppers like the promotional events and wish for more of such promotions, they tend to think more positively about the sponsor, view the promotional event as a good way to highlight the sponsor, and desire to shop more at the retail sponsor. These are important findings for advertising research practitioners, as they suggest that event attendees focus on how the sponsoring retailer fits with their image and sense of self.
Download “Fashion Event Marketing” Full Text
Market Resistance and Valentine’s Day Events
Close, A.G. & Zinkhan, G.M. (2009). Market Resistance and Valentine’s Day Events. Journal of Business Research. 62 (2), 200-207. (front page of New York Times; featured in New Scientist, Las Vegas Review-Journal)
The objectives of this study are twofold: 1) to uncover the anti-consumption and alternative consumption attitudes and behaviors during a commercial holiday, and 2) to advance resistance theories in these areas. We address these via four complementary methods stemming from seven years of primary research (i.e., retailer interviews, consumer diaries, e-diaries, surveys). In order to extend resistance theories, we examine multi-method data spanning over seven years of events related to a holiday market. In the context of Valentine’s Day, we present findings and develop knowledge on anti-consumption and alternative consumption. Specifically, we introduce the recurring events of gift-resistance, retail-resistance, and market-resistance. In turn, we find that such consumer resistance often co-exists with movements towards individualism and creation of more unique alternative consumption traditions.
Download “Market Resistance and Valentine’s Day Events” Full Text
Download “Market Resistance and Valentine’s Day Events” Presentation
The Impact of Repeat Attendance on Sponsorship Marketing Effects
Lacey, R., Sneath, J.Z., Finney, R.Z., & Close, A.G.(2007). The Impact of Repeat Attendance on Event Sponsorship Effects. Journal of Marketing Communications. 13 (4), 243-255.
Understanding the impact of retaining sponsors and event attendees offers important insight both to organizations that are contemplating long-term sponsorship relationships and to event marketers seeking ongoing sponsorship partnerships. Yet prior to this study, the impact of multi-year sponsorship and attendance on a sponsoring brand have not been investigated. The study addresses this gap through the examination of field survey results obtained during a professional cycling event, the Dodge Tour de Georgia, which drew more than 800,000 spectators over a six-day period in April 2005. Data from a sample of 1,227 attendees suggest that multi-year attendance is associated with enhanced brand image and purchase intentions of an ongoing title sponsor’s products. There are significant differences in: 1) attendees’ attitudes about the title sponsor and 2) their increased likelihood of purchasing the sponsor’s vehicles. Attitudes about the title sponsor were most favorable among spectators who attended the annual event multiple times. Furthermore, those who attended the event multiple times showed an increased likelihood of purchasing a new vehicle from the title sponsor. Advancing relationship theory, we find that consumers appreciate that the corporate brand contributes more to society than its primary business activities, and in turn, consumers state that they act on that appreciation.
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An IMC Approach to Event Marketing: The Effects of Sponsorship and Experience on Customer Attitudes
Sneath, J.Z., Finney, R.Z., & Close, A.G.(2005). An IMC Approach to Event Marketing: The Effects of Sponsorship and Experience on Customer Attitudes. Journal of Advertising Research. 45 (4), 373-381.
The number of companies sponsoring events has increased over the past decade. Yet, for many firms it is unclear how the effectiveness of event marketing activities, as a component of the overall communications mix, can be measured. The current study examines outcomes associated with an automobile manufacturer’s sponsorship of a charitable sporting event. Data for the study was collected from a sample of 565 spectators in five cities during the six-day event. Survey participants were asked to indicate how they had heard about the event and any exhibits and activities in which they participated during the event. In addition, respondents were asked to identify attitudes toward the title sponsor and its products, likelihood of purchasing the sponsor’s cars and trucks and preferred choice of next vehicle. Results of the study provide evidence for inclusion of event marketing in the company’s promotional mix. Further, the findings indicate that providing opportunities for experience with the sponsor’s products during the event may enhance outcomes associated with the event. The role of event marketing as a form of communication is discussed, and recommendations and directions for future research are suggested.
Download “Event Marketing” Full Text
Balancing Act: Proprietary and Non-Proprietary Sponsored Events
Sneath, J.Z., Finney, R.Z., Lacey, R. & Close, A.G. (2006). Balancing Act: Proprietary and Non-Proprietary Sponsored Events. Marketing Health Services. 26 (1), 27-32.
A budding industry trend is the shift away from sponsorship of high-profile shared events to smaller “exclusive” marketing events. Despite their increased number, it is clear that event-related expenditures are being scrutinized. The lack of support concerning sponsorship effectiveness questions the wisdom of its continued use. Few studies have offered empirical insight into the impact of proprietary versus non-proprietary event marketing. In response, the two objectives of this study are: (1) to explore the trade-offs between proprietary and non-proprietary sponsored marketing events, and (2) to assess the impact of healthcare marketing activities in association with a high-profile sporting event. To address the latter objective, we analyze field survey spectator results gathered at a sporting event during which a healthcare organization’s exhibits were present. We discuss the two major types of event marketing and the trade-offs of each approach. We then describe the event, healthcare marketers, and event beneficiary, along with the results of the study and analysis of the healthcare marketer’s impact on the event. Following the study results, we examine a prominent healthcare organization and reasons why it subscribes to the alternative event marketing approach. Finally, based on the findings of the two approaches, we offer marketing implications for healthcare organizations.
Download “Proprietary Event Marketing” Full Text
Consumer Experiences and Market Resistance: An Extension of Resistance Theories
Close, A.G.& Zinkhan G.M. (2007). Consumer Experiences and Market Resistance: An Extension of Resistance Theories. Advances in Consumer Research. Vol. 34, 256-262.
Here, I seek to advance understanding of consumers’ resistance manifest in holiday events. Specifically, I maintain three objectives: 1) to introduce a definition of market resistance, 2) to understand and explain consumer experiences that are associated with consumers’ resistance, and 3) to show what consumers are moving towards via their acts of resistance. I introduce a definition market resistance as an opposition to traditions in the marketplace, with the purpose of creating new behaviors.
I employ five synergistic methods over seven years (2000-2006) to build a theoretical framework to show the characteristics associated with market resistance. In the context of Valentine’s Day, I find that consumer experiences that drive market resistance are unfulfilled expectations, exclusion, terminal materialism, obligations, role exhaustion, and low need perception. I develop two key areas of resistance theory: ambivalence and avoidance.
Using new communication media, informants who avoid the traditional marketplace often find new places to share negative feelings. Thus, I extend aspects of resistance theory into the digital age by showing how informants do not avoid their negative feelings completely. Instead, they often create new channels for the negative feelings that are less apparent in the traditional marketplace. I show that consumers are moving towards a higher purpose with their resistance. In many cases, I find that consumers are moving towards acts of voluntary simplicity and co-creation of new marketplace traditions. Along with acts of market resistance, consumers create new events, traditions, rituals, and trends. While some informants maintain traditions, many re-create traditions and serve as change-agents. I present implications for theory, limitations, and avenues to extend this framework.
Download “Resisting Holiday Events” Full Text
Download “Resisting Holiday Events” Presentation
A Holiday Loved and Loathed: A Consumer Perspective of Valentine’s Day
Close, A.G. & Zinkhan, G.M. (2006). A Holiday Loved and Loathed: A Consumer Perspective of Valentine’s Day. Advances in Consumer Research. Vol. 33.
Valentine’s Day is an event associated with lavish consumption, rituals, expectations, and commercialism. Much of the romance is displayed with store-bought and marketing-driven exchanges, contrary to the unique personalized and intimate nature sometimes associated with Valentine’s Day and associated events. The objective of our multi-method study is to provide insight into Valentine’s rituals, themes, and meanings (as expressed in the U.S.) as a basis for understanding consumer behavior for this holiday. My three research questions focus on: a) consumer behaviors and rituals (both in-store and in the private spheres), b) key consumer meanings and emergent themes, and c) roles of marketing communications during this holiday. I identify many consumer behaviors associated with Valentine’s Day. In turn, I categorize behaviors into the areas of: gift exchange, card exchange, affection, food and drink preparation and consumption, and grooming/clothing. Many of these behaviors revolve around intimacy and sexuality. Some key meanings associated with these behaviors include: “belongingness”, “altruism”, “affection and intimacy”, “mutual expectations”, “self-gifts”, and “negative feelings”.
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Sex-Typing of Leisure Activities: A Test of Two Theories
Zinkhan, G.M., Prenshaw, P., & Close, A.G. (2004). Sex-Typing of Leisure Activities. Advances in Consumer Research. Vol. 31, 412-419.
It is generally accepted that perceptions of the suitability of particular leisure events and activities for males and females exist, and are based on sex-related stereotypes. Colley (1987) cites two sources from which these sex-related perceptions may emanate. First, they may be based on views of what is appropriate for the roles men and women enact at work and in the home. Second, perceptions may reflect stereotypes of male and female physical and psychological traits (particularly in relation to sport participation). The appropriateness of particular leisure events and activities for males or females is often used as a predictor for participation. However, research has only investigated the sex-appropriateness of sports and physical activities within the leisure domain (Colley, Nash, O’Donnell and Restorick 1987). Therefore, the first objective is to create and validate a comprehensive list of leisure activities and to classify these activities as “masculine,” “feminine,” or “neutral”.
The second objective is to investigate the determinants of sex-typing of leisure activities and events. The theories of Bem (1981) and Spence (1984) purport to explain the phenomenon of sex-typing; the former takes a personality approach, while the latter takes an attitudinal approach toward understanding sex-typing. A central issue in testing Bem and Spence’s theories, concerns whether a personality approach or an attitude approach is more appropriate. Although personality research has contributed much to our understanding of psychological phenomena, some researchers are disenchanted with the sometimes weak relationships, which appear to exist between personality and behavior (Kassarjian and Sheffet 1991). Spence’s attitude approach, within the domain of sex-typing, represents one possible alternative. Thus, this study investigates the effect of gender personality and gender-role attitudes upon sex-typing of leisurely events, and seeks to determine the individual and combined effects of these gender-related phenomena upon sex-typing of leisure activities. As leisure activities transgress online, a re-evaluation of gender theory is called for as it pertains to leisurely behavior and leisure events.
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Marketing Communications, Brand Loyalty and Teenagers: A Logit Choice Model
Close, A.G. “Marketing Communications, Brand Loyalty and Teenagers: A Logit Choice Model,” Working Paper.
Brand loyalty is often a desired outcome of event marketing communications. This research focuses on the impact of demographic variables, namely as teenage status and gender, on brand loyalty. Other variables studied include taste, quality, image, and the utility of the soft drink. Via an empirical application utilizing marketing modeling techniques, I examine brand loyalty in the soft drink category. To do this, I use a logit model. Survey data among South American soft drink consumers (n=6000) are collected and used to estimate a loyalty model. After interpretation, I discuss the findings, implications, and recommendations. My main finding indicates that teenagers and males are the most likely to be brand loyal in the soft drink category, and that there is no interaction effect between gender and age. I discuss the findings with their potential impact on marketing communications decisions relevant to gender and the teenage market on an international level.
Download “Consumer Loyalty and Marketing Communications” Full Text
How the Anticipation Can Be As Great As the Experience: Explaining Event Sponsorship Exhibit Outcomes via Affective Forecasting
Close, A.G. & Lacey, R. (in press). How the Anticipation Can Be As Great As the Experience: Explaining Event Sponsorship Exhibit Outcomes via Affective Forecasting. Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising.
Via field surveys of attendees at a multi-day professional sporting event (n=1,089), the authors contribute an interesting finding—that the anticipation of participating in an event sponsor’s exhibit area is just as great as the experience itself when it comes to evaluating the sponsor. The study’s results suggest that the mere presence of event marketing activities (in addition to sponsorship communications) improves sponsorship outcomes. Affective forecasting theory is introduced to the advertising/event marketing literature here, and used to explain the study’s findings and provide implications for advertisers who engage in sponsored event marketing.
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A Gender Role Analysis of Valentine Event Marketing
Close, A.G. (2012). “A Gender Role Analysis of Valentine Event Marketing” In Otnes, C.C. & Tuncay Zayer, L. (Eds.) Gender, Culture, and Consumer Behavior. (p. 223-252). Routledge.
Valentine’s Day is a holiday and an event that may appear light spirited for females; yet, the emotions revealed online and offline and consumer behavior decisions for many females in the U.S. can be quite complex. This multi-method research uncovers themes that contribute to an understanding of female consumer behavior, expanded gender roles, and gift exchange rituals in the context of Valentine’s Day. Extending prior conceptual discussions, findings suggest that females have escalating expectations (from themselves as well as loved ones). Despite this being a day where some women feel that they are a queen for a day, other females share some less-desirable feelings and emotions related to Valentine’s Day events. Some, even women happily in a romantic relationship, feel a degree of exclusion on the holiday. Other women feel the holiday is laden with materialism and terminal gift syndrome, obligations, and a surprisingly low need of enacting traditional Valentine exchange traditions. A final theme uncovered here is that of gender role exhaustion. Women perceive a broader gender role that transcends that of just recognizing their romantic interest. Women feel responsibility and obligation to recognize their female loved ones: mothers, sisters, daughters, grandmothers, girlfriends (especially single girlfriends), and even their pets. The day has broadened for women and there is a shift in the sphere of exchange and consumption from the traditional marketplace to the virtual marketplace and/or the home. Women rely on the Internet and online platforms to discuss their roles, and to help carry out their roles (e.g., via e-tail purchases and by sending virtual Valentine’s).
Download “Shifting Gender Roles of Valentine Events” Full Text TBA
Fit Matters? Asymmetrical Impact of Effectiveness on Sponsors and Event Marketers
Close, A.G. & Lacey, R. (in press) Fit Matters? Asymmetrical Impact of Effectiveness on Sponsors and Event Marketers. Sport Marketing Quarterly.
This sport marketing study establishes a clearer demarcation between an event sponsor and a sponsored event in relation to investigating the potential value of congruity. Based on 1,615 field surveys, we uncover the asymmetrical impact of event-sponsor fit on the title sponsor and sponsored professional cycling event. Specifically, the study reveals how consumers’ positive perceptions of the sponsor rise when they perceive greater fit with the event; yet, congruity does not influence consumers’ attitudes toward the event. That is, even when the event and sponsor are perceived as a mismatch, it does not impact how the attendee assesses the event. Event-sponsor fit makes for a stronger sponsorship investment, especially when the sponsor is seen as socially responsible. The tested model illustrates how the transfer of corporate social responsibility serves to bridge favorable attitudes toward the event with positive sponsor brand associations and purchasing intent for the sponsor’s brands.
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How Fit Connects Service Brand Sponsors with Consumers’ Passions for Sponsored Events
Lacey, R. & Close, A.G. How Fit Connects Service Brand Sponsors with Consumers’ Passions for Sponsored Events. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship.
Despite the strong trend for service brands sponsoring events, the literature provides few theory-based and field-tested guidelines for services marketing managers who are charged with selecting events to sponsor. In response, this study provides a congruity-based framework for sponsors’ decision-making and tests the hypothesized model explaining linkages among service brand sponsors, a sporting event, and consumer attitudes. The study’s findings help clarify not only how congruent event-sponsor fit can be realised but also the potentially valuable role that event-sponsor fit serves toward strengthening key consumer relationship outcomes.
Structural equation modeling is used to test the posited model using replicate samples of two distinct service brands (AT&T: n=563 and United Community Bank: n=435) operating at different levels of corporate sponsorship of the sixth annual Tour de Georgia (TDG) professional cycling race which drew an estimated 400,000 attendees. Investigation of the effectiveness of different brands at the same event is important to marketers as it reflects the plethora of brand messages typically communicated at sports events. The results do not reveal that tested individual brand sponsor congruity moderates consumers’ attitudes toward the event or sponsor. Surprisingly, AT&T did not experience any discernable advantage of sponsorship, despite its position as the title sponsor of the TDG and its high brand equity. Based on this preliminary evidence, the results offer directional evidence that sponsors may not necessarily reap results that are commensurate with their sponsorship level or brand equity position. Thus, established regional service brands may experience sponsorship effectiveness at regional or community events where their sponsorship investments can be recognised without serving as the title sponsor.
The current study extends previous congruity research because it lays out contributing factors for establishing event-sponsor fit. As a form of fan involvement, activeness in the event domain (i.e., sports activity) is shown to positively influence how consumers assess the link between an individual service brand and the tested sponsored sports event. In addition, the results make it clear that consumers form more favourable event-sponsor linkages when they enjoy the event as consumer affect toward the event is shown to positively and directly influence their perceptions of event-sponsor fit. This finding is particularly relevant for service brands high in functional or utilitarian properties. In particular, sponsorship of hedonic events can convey similar values and imagery and/or offer a logical connection with the service brand. In addition, the hypothesized path between consumers’ brand knowledge and their assessments of the sponsor’s fit with the event finds multi-contextual support.
The study further demonstrates how desirable relational outcomes are positively influenced by event-sponsor fit. Specifically, congruency positively and directly influences consumer’s favourable brand commitment to the sponsor’s brands, which in turn, benefits the sponsor by consumers’ intentions to purchase the sponsor’s services. Overall, the findings show how events and service brand sponsorships synergistically facilitate and deepen consumer relationships by connecting service brands with consumers’ passions for the sponsored event and its activities.
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It Ain’t Easy Being Green: Bridging the Gap Among Macro, Meso, and Micro Agendas
Fowler, A.R. & Close, A.G. (in press) It Ain’t Easy Being Green: Bridging the Gap Among Macro, Meso, and Micro Agendas. Journal of Advertising. 41 (4), 119-132.
While not specific to event marketing, this study considers going green–as many events are doing for prosocial as well as financial reasons. The green gap is traditionally thought of as the gap between how consumers intend to behave in regards to green living and how they actually behave. We extend the idea of the green gap by demonstrating a gap between differing agendas in green advertising. A content analysis and phenomenological interviews suggest that there is a macro agenda of saving the planet associated with non-profit green advertisers. There is a meso agenda associated with for profit enterprises. These commercial approaches do not appear to be best connected with consumers’ a micro agenda of saving one’s own part of the planet (or at the very least, of not wasting one’s part of it as perpetuated by consumers). We then provide suggestions for green advertisers in bridging this green gap among for profit, non-profit, and consumers.
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Check out my research papers for download (available via SSRN)
Here are abstracts from my research in the area of electronic marketplaces & the consumer experience (available until 2010; 2010-current papers are available above)
The Determinants of Consumers’ Electronic Shopping Cart Abandonment
Kukar-Kinney, Monika and Angeline G. Close (equal authorship), “The Determinants of Consumers’ Shopping Cart Abandonment,” Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, forthcoming.
Despite placing items in virtual shopping carts, online shoppers frequently abandon them—an issue that perplexes online retailers and has yet to be explained by scholars. Here, we identify key drivers to online cart abandonment and suggest cognitive and behavioral reasons for this non-buyer behavior. We show that the factors influencing consumer online search, consideration, and evaluation play a larger role in cart abandonment than factors at the purchase decision stage. In particular, many customers use online carts for entertainment or as a shopping research and organizational tool, which may induce them to buy at a later session or via another channel. Our framework extends theories of online buyer and non-buyer behavior while revealing new inhibitors to buying in the Internet era. The findings offer scholars a broad explanation of consumer motivations for cart abandonment. For retailers, the authors provide suggestions to improve purchase conversion rates and multi-channel management.
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Beyond Buying: Motivations Behind Consumers’ Online Shopping Cart Use
Close, Angeline G. and Monika Kukar-Kinney (2010). “Beyond Buying: Motivations behind Consumers’ Online Shopping Cart Use,” Journal of Business Research, 63 (10), 986-992.
The authors investigate consumers’ motivations for placing items in an online shopping cart with or without buying, termed virtual cart use. Beyond current purchase intent, consumers use the virtual cart as a shopping organizational tool as well as to take advantage of online price promotions. The research advances knowledge by identifying a new motivation for online cart use, such as organizational intent, and by providing a typology of consumer online cart use. Managerial implications include suggestions for enhancing online shopping-to-buying conversion rates and providing online shoppers with opportunities for virtual shopping cart use that is more than simply utilitarian.
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Cyber Identity Theft: A Conceptual Model and Issues for Public Policy
Close, Angeline G., George M. Zinkhan, and Robert Z. Finney (2004), “Cyber Identify Theft: Issues for Public Policy,” Enhancing Knowledge Development in Marketing, 15 (K. L. Bernhardt, J.S. Boles, and P.S. Ellen ed.). Chicago: American Marketing Association, 48-55. &
Close, Angeline G., George M. Zinkhan, and R. Zachary Finney (2006), “Cyber Identity Theft,” E-Commerce, E-Government and Mobile Commerce, Idea Group Reference, Mehdi Khosrow-Pour, ed. (ISBN# 1-59140-799-0)
Here, a conceptual model is introduced for empirical work on cyber identity theft. To do this, three classification schemes (i.e., methods used by the thieves; time frame of the theft; behavioral responses by victims) synthesize conceptualizations of identity theft associated with the Internet.
Together, these schemes illustrate major problems and trends associated with cyber-identity theft. In light of the growing concern associated with identity theft, these schemes are highlighted in order to highlight and discuss key issues related to public policy and consumer welfare for future research.
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The Agency in Cyberspace: A Content Analysis of Ad Agency Homepages
Finney, R. Z., Richard D. Parker, Angeline G.Close, and Robert A. Orwig (2004),”The Agency in Cyberspace: A Content Analysis of Ad Agency Homepages, Journal of Contemporary Business Issues, 12 (2) (Fall), 74-80.
“If you don’t get noticed, you don’t have anything. You just have to be noticed, but the art is in getting noticed naturally, without screaming or without tricks.” — Leo Burnett
No longer a “trick to get noticed,” web sites are a necessity for businesses today. Establishing a successful web presence means bringing the consumer a memorable, informative, and satisfying experience. The Internet is changing the nature of marketing communications. Through the Internet, buyers have “real-time” access to businesses across the world. Interestingly, in spite of a number of studies that investigate the Internet’s impact on advertising messages, to date, no one has examined the Internet’s impact on the advertising agency. In this study, we begin to fill this “gap” in the literature. We conducted a content analysis of advertising agency homepages to determine how agencies use the web to communicate with current and potential customers. Specifically, we examine two broad questions: 1) what percentage of leading U.S. advertising agencies have a web presence?, and 2) for what purposes do ad agencies use their homepages? To answer the second question, we investigate three specific aspects of the homepages: a) communication strategy, b) interactivity, and c) the degree to which the homepage lists firm credentials.
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Rules of Romance at Work: Who’s the Boss?
Close, Angeline G. (2002), “Rules of Romance at Work: Who’s the Boss,” Atlantic Marketing Association, 187-193.
Before the Internet’s e-dating scene emerged, the workplace remained a common (yet often controversial) place to meet a romantic partner. Eight million relationships a year begin at the workplace (Society for Human Resources 2001), dating at the workplace versus the marketplace presents challenges and opportunities at the individual, couple, and organizational level. Daters who work together often find themselves in situations that present a choice between business or a romantic relationship. This choice may be attempted to be controlled by corporate policy, yet in many contexts, a policy banning workplace romance is not realistic, appropriate, nor effective. Dating incorporates intimacy, passion, and commitment, as suggested by Sternberg’s (1989) triangle theory of love. I overlap this theory with “three Ws” of a workplace dating policy: 1. When should there be a policy banning workplace dating?; 2. Why or why not have such a policy?; 3. Would such a policy be taken seriously?
In respect to the triangle theory (Sternberg 1989), I interviewed 22 workplace daters and managers about their company policy and the outcomes of such policy. I present advantages and disadvantages on policy surrounding workplace dating. I discuss managerial implications, noting that love is a higher-order boss. Policies for e-dating at the workplace are suggested.
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The eMergence of eDating
Close, Angeline G. and George M. Zinkhan (2004), “The E-Mergence of E-Dating, Advances in Consumer Research, 31 (B. Kahn and M.F. Luce, ed.), Valdosta, GA: Association for Consumer Research, 153-157.
Now fate has met its match!” —Yahoo! Personals.
Dating, or the process of ritualistically courting a partner with a perceived aspect of romantic potential, is a component of consumer behavior that is currently in a transition stage. Dating behavior is “E-merging” along with increased online and wireless capability. E-dating sites account for the highest portion of all online paid advertising content. There is an e-dating site for almost every religion (e.g., catholicsingles.com), region (e.g., chicagosingles.com), or cultural background (e.g., globalrishta.com). The most popular online dating services (e.g., match.com; myspace.com) draw patrons and curious counterparts from all financial, economic, and social backgrounds. E-dating sites provide a virtual opportunity for consumers to interact and stage marketed events. The electronic and event environments have the potential to transition traditional dating patterns, rituals, scripts, and motivations on both the individual and the societal level.
Two central questions guide this research. Primarily, “To what extent do daters use the Internet to initiate and/or facilitate dating relationships in the U.S.? Furthermore, “What concerns and outcomes do consumers experience before, during, and after searching, posting, and/or joining an Internet dating/singles site?” In pursuing these questions, we seek to: a) understand the emergence of electronic (Internet) dating via informants’ experiences, and b) present data that describes and typifies consumer motivations, experiences, and outcomes of e-dating in the online and onground marketplaces.
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Technology and Dating Rituals: A Historical Analysis of Online and Electronic Rituals
Angeline G. Close and George M. Zinkhan, “Technology and Dating Rituals: A Historical Analysis”, Working Paper.
This research analyzes dating patterns in recent American history as they relate to consumer behavior. Before undertaking a phenomenology of today’s increasingly electronic dating culture, we provide an extensive, historically based review of past dating patterns and trends in American history. This phenomenology of modern dating is generated through a series of in-depth interviews. Dating attitudes and behavior are analyzed in light of the three theories regarding the functions of dating: dating as status-seeking, dating as socialization, and dating as fulfilling ego needs. We view dating patterns as a non-static phenomena. Furthermore, dating is questioned to be changing along with societal and cultural adaptations. Culture has reinforced male and female evolutionary preferences through the media and the institutions of dating and marriage. The evolutionary framework presents consumer behavior as an extension of behavior patterns established before the era of consumerism. Awareness of a future outlook of these changes on American dating norms provides insight to marketers as dating is a form of consumption and ultra-conscious marketing in the e-services and e-commerce arena.
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How Information Quality and Market Turbulence Impact Convention and Visitors Bureaus Use of Marketing Information: Insights for Destination and Event Marketing
Ally Lee, Angeline G. Close, and Curtis Love “How Information Quality and Market Turbulence Impact Convention and Visitors Bureaus Use of Marketing Information: Insights for Destination and Event Marketing” Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, forthcoming.
Information is an essential component of Convention and Visitors Bureaus (CVBs) for their marketing purposes in order to make their destinations and events more attractive to visitors. During the information gathering process, tourism and event marketing directors must select relevant and credible data for successful decision-making. Based on the lack of academic research in the area of online marketing information use by CVBs, this study investigates what factors influence CVBs’ online information use for their market research. In particular, this study examines the relationships among technology change, customer change, information quality, and marketing information use with CVBs in the United States. Utilizing an online survey to CVB managers, findings from this study identify the use of Internet-based information as positively associated with the quality of Internet-based information followed by customer change and technology change. Implications for destination marketers and event marketers are included.
Online Consumer Behavior: Theory and Research in Social Media, Advertising, and E-Tail
Close, Angeline G. (Ed.), Online Consumer Behavior: Theory and Research in Social Media, Advertising, and E-Tail, Edited Book in Progress
The overall theme of the book entails online consumer behavior in the realm of social media, advertising, and e-tail. There is an immense need of more knowledge in the area, as they represent emerging research topics in areas in which consumers share and generate value. As the field of marketing changes with advances in technology, scholarly research approaches progress as well. This book should provide value to scholars and practitioners who are interested in social marketing/online consumer behavior topics and beyond. Social media and online consumer behavior continues to lend opportunities and questions to marketing scholarship and practice. As scholarly thought is focused on shaping the future of research in marketing, social media and online consumer research allow for new ideas, theories, methods, and discoveries to the field of marketing. Hence, this book recognizes that online marketing, online consumption and computer mediated communication/social networking is a growing facet of consumer behavior and well-being. Thus, in light of this recognition, a group of thirty committed authors and myself contribute a scholarly/practitioner book in the context of online consumer behavior and social media. Social networks and online consumer behavior are cutting-edge topics in the professional application of consumer behavior theory and scholarship. Social marketing and online consumer behavior are continuing to exponentially grow as relevant and timely topics of interest to consumer scholars and practitioners interested in connecting with their consumers. These timely topics should contribute a platform for scholarly discourse for scholars interested in consumer behavior, virtual worlds, consumer technology, new products, strategy, and e-services/e-tail.
Online Consumer Behavior:
Theory and Research in Social Media, Advertising, and E-Tail
(Routledge, 978-1848729698, Hardcover, 350 pages, Expected Publication Date, April 25 2012)
You’ve Been Poked
Friend me. Social media. Facebook. Tweet that. LinkedIn. Groupon. Re-tweet that. Buzz marketing. Face-time tonight? Un-friend him. These online terms and brands have changed the way of online consumer behavior, advertising, and branding. It is crucial to understand how consumers think, feel, and act regarding social media, online advertising, and online shopping. Business practitioners are looking for answers and solutions as to how to understand online consumer behavior so that they can maximize their online customer experiences to help instill brand loyalty. Non-profit managers or politicians, in a similar fashion, seek an understanding of online consumer behavior so that they can raise awareness and make online giving easy. Scholars have produced only the beginning stages of theory that can systematically explain and predict online consumer behavior, and this book will continue that objective.
Online advertisers know the importance of not just incorporating but also embracing consumer blogs, Facebook, Twitter, Linked In, MySpace, Digg, HowSocial, Groupon, and other social media to enhance their online presence. Yet, questions remain as how to synergistically leverage these online branding tools to increase the online consumer experience and hence value of their websites. Some of the world’s leading brand visionaries such as Apple, as well as emerging brands like Trader Joe’s align their corporate site and social media objectives to enhance online return on investment.
This theory-driven, research-based book will help address important questions for
scholarship and practice, such as:
- What are some industry best practices for measuring social media impact and brand visibility?
- How can social media channels help funnel more qualified leads, and lessen online cart abandonment rates?
- What is the role of user-generated content in today’s online marketplace?
- How do consumers envision their online identity (e.g., via avatars), and how does their online identity relate with their offline identity?
- What is the role of trust and authenticity in an online presence?
- How do different groups, such as adolescents, men, or even politicians use and embrace social media differently?
By the end of this book, readers will understand more about online consumer behavior to help unify a website’s business or non-profit goals with social media or e-commerce knowledge to maximize the return on investment of both channels.
Check out my research papers for download (available via SSRN)
Here are abstracts from my research in the area of education and marketing scholarship (available until 2010; 2010-current papers are available above)
Establishing Human Brands: Determinants of Placement Success for First Faculty Positions in Marketing
Close, Angeline G., Julie Guidry Moulard and Kent Monroe (2010). “Establishing Human Brands: Determinants of Placement Success for First Faculty Positions in Marketing, ” Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, forthcoming.
Close, Angeline G. and Julie Guidry (2007), “What Impacts First Faculty Placements in Marketing?,” Enhancing Knowledge Development in Marketing,. Chicago: American Marketing Association, forthcoming. (extended abstract)
In this paper, based on primary data spanning five years, we examine factors that influence the entry-level placement of marketing doctoral candidates at U.S. universities and colleges.Contributing to the emerging research on human brands, we identify marketing doctoral candidates‘ intrinsic and extrinsic brand cues that influence their number of AMA interviews, campus visit offers, and starting base salary. The strongest brand cue is the research productivity of candidates‘ doctoral degree-granting departments. A related cue that also predicts initial salary is the candidates‘ advisors‘ research record. Further, when beginning the job search, doctoral students who have a top research publication, a dissertation proposal defended with data, and who have attended the AMA-Sheth Foundation Doctoral Consortium receive a substantial entry salary premium. Based on branding frameworks and theories of academic rewards, this study adds to the emerging knowledge on both the concept of human brands as well as the growing literature on issues relating to marketing academia.
Download “Marketing Placements” Full Text
Download “Marketing Market” Presentation
Chalkboards to Cybercources: The Internet in Marketing Education
Close, Angeline G., Ashutosh Dixit, and Naresh Malhotra (2005), “Chalkboards to Cybercources: The Internet in Marketing Education,” Marketing Education Review, 15 (2) (Summer), 81-94.
Electronic environments such as the Internet lead the way to ever-changing concepts in marketing education. The changing state of technology necessitates an equally rapid synthesis of literature. Our study serves as an investigation of research concerning the Internet and marketing education. We synthesize 80 articles featuring the Internet and marketing education and classify the literature into seven components. These areas include: 1) active learning, 2) Internet marketing degree requirement, 3) marketing department websites, 4) pedagogical obstacles, 5) student benefits and obstacles, 6) distance learning courses, and 7) the future of marketing education. We then systematically identify gaps in the research, in order to provide streams for future study in this evolving area. The emerging gaps include: e-ethics in marketing, collapsing international boundaries, technology and marketing department value, and the infinite “Internet2”. We ultimately address the state of Internet-based education, and how the state of the field relates with the gaps in literature. Our research targets the marketing professor, doctoral students in marketing, and educational institutions, as each may be profoundly impacted by the body of knowledge that has emerged as marketing environments evolve from the “chalkboard to the cybercourse”.
Download “Chalkboards to Cybercources” Full Text
Download “Chalkboards to Cybercources” Presentation
A Content Analysis of Content Analyses in Marketing
Austin, Graham, Angeline G. Close, Sunil Contractor, JiHee Song, and Qiyu Zhang (2004), “A Content Analysis of Content Analyses in Marketing, “Enhancing Knowledge Development in Marketing, 15 (L. Bernhardt, J.S. Boles, and P.S. Ellen, ed.). Chicago: American Marketing Association, 192-194.
Marketing communication often involves examination of communication processes–with the Internet as a tool. Content analysis is a method for studying communication forms (Yale and Gilly 1988), and here, we explore its use in marketing research. We review all content analysis studies published in select marketing journals from 1977 to 2002. We find content analysis is not a widely used method in marketing research. The method has gained sophistication as an analytical tool over the past twenty-five years, as evidenced by the Internet and content analysts’ heightened reliance on theory to inform research design and interpretation of findings, and by their increasing use of advanced statistical methods to analyze data. However, many content analyses still rely on simple percentages to interpret their data. We call for researchers to uphold more rigorous standards in content analyses in order to improve its efficacy as a research method in marketing.
Download “Method’s Own Medicine” Full Text
Download “Method’s Own Medicine” Presentation
Scientific Presentations in Marketing
Finney, R. Z. and Angeline Grace Close (2005), “Scientific Presentations in Marketing,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, (Book Review Section) 33 (2) (April), 37-38.
“[Lectures] depend entirely for their value on the manner in which they are given. It is not the matter, not the subject, so much as the man.” –Michael Faraday, 1864
For marketing scholars, presentations are a must in the academic marketplace. During the course of our careers, we present (or co-present with technology) at conferences, on campus visits, to obtain grants, and to teach. And yet, in spite of the importance of these lectures, many scholars receive little formal instruction regarding how they can improve their presentations. We review a framework built for scholars to become more effective presenters to academic and practitioner audiences alike. Key areas are the use of technology for technology’s sake, interactivity, and making use of the communication process.
Download “Scientific Presentations” Full Text
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, PhD
Dan Duncan Professor of Sports Marketing
Associate Professor of Marketing
Wilbur O. and Ann Powers College of Business
Clemson University, Department of Marketing
330 H (New Business School Building)
firstname.lastname@example.org (students please email through Canvas)
Does your event sponsorship investment reach your marketing goals? Does the event sponsorship provide an attitude shift and or ROI? You wouldn’t invest in traditional media without measuring effectiveness, so it is crucial to measure live consumer experiences with your brand or venue. Especially, because a greater percentage of marketing budgets are going towards events, sponsorship, and experiential marketing.
I convert theory-based, statistical analysis to clear action points for managers. Event Marketing Sponsorship, LLC services include: sponsorship valuation, event economic impact, research objective setting, pre-tests, survey design, field research management and implementation, articulation with advertising and other OOH marketing, online event synergy, methods, analysis, making the analysis simple to understand from a managerial perspective, report writing, presentation, and follow up. I am primarily interested in the data–creating generalizable event sponsorship models, adding to scholarship and teaching these principles to students.
I have contributed event sponsorship effectiveness or event economic impact projects for:
- Event Sponsors: Automotive: Dodge, Ford, Lexus, Suzuki, Mazda, Toyota; Communications: AT&T (2-year study), United States Postal Service; Finance: United Community Bank; Oil: Shell
- Event Venues: The Fashion Show Mall (Las Vegas), Road Atlanta (Braselton, GA), Red Rock Country Club (Las Vegas), Olympic Village (Atlanta), Redstone Golf Club (Houston)
- Pro Sport Events: The Tour de Georgia (5-year study) (Cycling), Petit Lemans (Auto Racing), Superbike Showdown (Motorbike Racing), Las Vegas Open (Tennis), Shell Houston Open (Golf), The Tour of Utah(Cycling), USA Pro Cycling Challenge (Cycling), National Hot Rod Association (NHRA)
- Consumer Behavior/Marketing Strategy: Hallmark, Harvey’s, Coca-Cola, College of Southern Nevada * Third party marks and logos of clients are trademarks of their respective owners.
Event Sponsorship Measurement, LLC
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Here is a sample of top ad agencies (worldwide) based on revenue from recent years. For research on ad agency’s use of websites sites, you may refer to our studies:
Finney, R. Z., Richard D. Parker, and Angeline G. Close (2004),”The Agency in Cyberspace: A Content Analysis of Ad Agency Homepages,” (Extended Abstract) Journal of Contemporary Business Issues.
R. Zachary Finney and Angeline G. Close (2006), “The Virtual Agency,” E-Commerce, E-Government and Mobile Commerce, Idea Group Reference, Mehdi Khosrow-Pour, ed. (ISBN# 1-59140-799-0), p. 1158-1162.
R. Zachary Finney and Angeline G. Close (2008), “The Virtual Agency as a New Force in the Promotions Industry,” Electronic Commerce: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications, S. Ann Becker, ed. (ISBN# 978-1-59904-943-4), p. 2240-2246. *Reprint of Finney and Close (2006)
Ad Agency Sites
Who is the most creative? ::Who specializes in what area? ::Which would you most like to work for?